DevOps Interview Questions

DevOps Interview Questions

1.What is DevOps?

DevOps is a Combination of two words i.e.Development and Operations, where both teams work together to deliver project effectively with in less time.


2.Stages involved in DevOps?

  • Development
  • Build
  • Test
  • QA
  • Deploy
  • Monitor

3.What are the tools that we use in DevOps?

  • Git
  • Maven
  • Selenium
  • Jenkins
  • Chef
  • Ansible
  • Puppet
  • Docker
  • Kubernetes
  • Nagios

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4.What is Git?

Git is a Repository where we store our source code. Also we call Git as a SCM(Source Code Management) because we manage source code.

We also call Git as version control system where we can store code in versions format.


5.Advantages of Git

  • Speed: Git stores code in a snapshot format. It takes incremental backup unlike other SCM tools.
  • No need Internet: Backup copy is present in each and every one’s machines. That’s why we call Git as distributed version control system.
  • Parallel branching: Can create any number of branches

6.Stages of Git

  • Working directory
  • Staging area
  • Local repository
  • Central repository

7.What is working Directory?

It is the place, where we create files and modify.


8.What is staging area?

Git takes snapshots in this stage (incremental backup)


9.What is local repository?

It is the place where Git stores code locally in the form of commits.


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10.What is central repository?

It is the place where Git stores code centrally in the form of commits.


11.What is Git stash?

Git stash is a temporary storage. It removes content from the file and puts in stash repository and gives clean working directory so that we can start new work.

Later on we can bring back the stash item and we can continue our work.


12.What is Git Commit?

Stores changes permanently in local repository we call Git commit.


13.What is Commit Id?

Every time we commit we get commit ID. It contains 40 long alpha numeric characters.

We also call commit ID as version or version ID.


14What is branching strategy in Git?

We create branches for parallel development. We can work simultaneously on multiple features. For each feature we create each branch. Default branch name is master.


15What is Git Conflict?

When two branches have same file with same name but different content. When you try to merge these two branches conflict occurs. We need to resolve this conflict manually.


16What Git reset?

Bringing back changes from staging area to work space.


17.What is Git revert?

Bringing back changes from local repository to work space.Git revert creates new commit ID.


18.What is Git Tag?

We give a meaning full name to commit ID so that we can remember it easily.


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19.What is Git hub?

Git hub is an online central repository where we store code centrally


20.What is Chef?

Chef is one of the configuration management tools through which, we automate admin tasks.


21.What is configuration management?

It is a process through which we automate admin tasks. Where we convert infrastructure into code.


22.Advantage of configuration management?

  • Complete automation
  • Increase uptime
  • Improve performance
  • Reduce cost

23.List of configuration management tools?

  • Chef
  • Ansible
  • Puppet
  • Salt Stack

24.What are the stages of Chef?

  • Chef work station ( where we write the code)
  • Chef Server (where we store the code)
  • Chef node(where we apply the code)

25.What is cookbook?

Cookbook is a folder where we keep recipes.


26.What is recipe?

Recipe is a file where we write the code in Ruby language.


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27.What is Knife?

It is a tool, which is responsible to establish the communication among Chef Work station, Chef Server and Chef node.


28.What is Ohai?

It is a system discovery tool which stores system information.


29.What is Idempotency?

Tracking the state of system resources so that changes should not reapply repeatedly.


30.What Chef supermarket?

It is online storage for Chef Cookbooks which is being maintained by Chef Company.


31.What is Berks file?

We use Berks file to manage dependencies.


32.What is Chef Client?

Chef client is a tool which runs frequently from Chef node to Chef server to pull the code.


33.What is Run List?

Run List is the list of recipes mention in a sequence order to applying nodes.


34.What is include_recipe?

Calling multiple recipes by using one recipe we call include_recipe.


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35.What is Bootstrap?

Attaching node to Chef Server is called Bootstrap i.e. bringing any node into Chef Environment.


36.What is Chef Roles?

Grouping same family servers in Chef called Role.

Eg: Web server role (contains only web servers)


37.What is Container?

Container is a virtual machine where we can deploy any kind of applications.


38.What is Docker?

Docker is a tool by using which we create containers.


39.What are the advantages of Docker?

  • No need Gust OS.
  • No pre allocation of RAM.
  • Less cost
  • Less weight.
  • Re-usability.

40.Docker components?

  • Docker image
  • Docker container
  • Docker file
  • Docker registry
  • Docker daemon

41.What is Docker image?

Docker image contains OS in the form of layers.


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42.What is Docker container?

Docker container is virtual machine created by Docker image.


43.What is Docker file?

It is a file where we give instruction to create Docker image.


44.What is Docker registry?

Docker registry is online storage where we store Docker images publicly.


45.What is Docker daemon?

It is Docker service runs continuously in background.


46.Ways of creating Docker image?

  • Pull image from Docker hub/registry.
  • Create our own image from Docker container.
  • Create Docker image from Docker file.

47.What Docker volume?

Docker volume is a centralized storage where we can store and retrieve data from any Docker container.


48.What is Ansible?

Ansible is a configuration management tool through which we automate admin tasks.


49.Stages in Ansible?

  • Ansible server
  • Ansible node/host

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50.What is playbook in Ansible?

Playbook is a file where we write code in YAML script to create infrastructure.


51.What is inventory file in Ansible?

It is a file where we mentation list of nodes IP/DNS names against whom, the configuration to be applied.          .


52.What is Ad-Hoc commands in Ansible?

These are quick one liner Linux commands that we execute to meet immediate requirements without storing for future.


53.List of sections in Ansible?

  • Target section
  • Task section
  • Variable section

54.What is task section?

It contains list of tasks to be executed in nodes. We mention tasks in the form of modules.


55.What is Target section?

In this we mention list of nodes against which these tasks to be executed.


56.What is variable section?

In this we mention variables.


57.What is handler section?

In this we mention dependencies.


58.What is Ansible Vault?

It is the way of encrypting Ansible playbooks to provide security.

We generally keep sensitive data like passwords, keys and we encrypt them so that unauthorized person can’t read the data.


59.What is setup module in Ansible?

We use this module to get the details of Ansible nodes. It stores system information.


60.What is Ansible Roles?

Adding more and more functionality to playbooks will make it difficult to maintain in a single file. So we organize playbooks into a directory structure called Roles.

 


61.What is CI-CD?

Whenever developers write code, we integrate all that code written by developers at that point of time and we build, test and deliver /deploy. This process is called CI-CD.


62.List of CI-CD tolls?

  • Jenkins
  • Circle-CI
  • Bamboo

63.Advantage of Jenkins?

  1. It has so many plug-ins
  2. We can write your own plug-in
  3. We can customize Jenkins as per our own needs.

64.Types of configurations in Jenkins?

  1. Global configuration
  2. Node configuration
  3. Job configuration

65.Pre-requisites to install Jenkins?

  1. Java
  2. Web server

66.What is Plug-in in Jenkins?

Plug-ins are small libraries that add new abilities to Jenkins and can provide integration points to other tools


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